ginsh: use exmap for storing assigned symbols.
[ginac.git] / ginsh / ginsh_parser.yy
1 /** @file ginsh_parser.yy
2  *
3  *  Input grammar definition for ginsh.
4  *  This file must be processed with yacc/bison. */
5
6 /*
7  *  GiNaC Copyright (C) 1999-2008 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany
8  *
9  *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
10  *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
11  *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
12  *  (at your option) any later version.
13  *
14  *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
15  *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
16  *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
17  *  GNU General Public License for more details.
18  *
19  *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
20  *  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
21  *  Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
22  */
23
24
25 /*
26  *  Definitions
27  */
28
29 %{
30 #include "config.h"
31 #ifdef HAVE_RUSAGE
32 #include <sys/resource.h>
33 #else
34 #include <ctime>
35 #endif
36
37 #if HAVE_UNISTD_H
38 #include <sys/types.h>
39 #include <unistd.h>
40 #endif
41
42 #include <stdexcept>
43
44 #include "ginsh.h"
45
46 #define YYERROR_VERBOSE 1
47
48 #ifdef REALLY_HAVE_LIBREADLINE
49 // Original readline settings
50 static int orig_completion_append_character;
51 #if (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR < 4) || (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR == 4 && GINAC_RL_VERSION_MINOR < 2)
52 static char *orig_basic_word_break_characters;
53 #else
54 static const char *orig_basic_word_break_characters;
55 #endif
56
57 #if (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR >= 5)
58 #define GINAC_RL_COMPLETER_CAST(a) const_cast<char *>((a))
59 #else
60 #define GINAC_RL_COMPLETER_CAST(a) (a)
61 #endif
62 #endif // REALLY_HAVE_LIBREADLINE
63
64 // Expression stack for %, %% and %%%
65 static void push(const ex &e);
66 static ex exstack[3];
67 // Assigned symbols
68 static exmap assigned_symbol_table;
69
70 // Start and end time for the time() function
71 #ifdef HAVE_RUSAGE
72 static struct rusage start_time, end_time;
73 #define START_TIMER getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &start_time);
74 #define STOP_TIMER getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &end_time);
75 #define PRINT_TIME_USED cout << \
76    (end_time.ru_utime.tv_sec - start_time.ru_utime.tv_sec) + \
77        (end_time.ru_stime.tv_sec - start_time.ru_stime.tv_sec) + \
78        double(end_time.ru_utime.tv_usec - start_time.ru_utime.tv_usec) / 1e6 + \
79        double(end_time.ru_stime.tv_usec - start_time.ru_stime.tv_usec) / 1e6 \
80                        << 's' << endl;
81 #else
82 static std::clock_t start_time, end_time;
83 #define START_TIMER start_time = std::clock();
84 #define STOP_TIMER end_time = std::clock();
85 #define PRINT_TIME_USED \
86   cout << double(end_time - start_time)/CLOCKS_PER_SEC << 's' << endl;
87 #endif
88
89 // Table of functions (a multimap, because one function may appear with different
90 // numbers of parameters)
91 typedef ex (*fcnp)(const exprseq &e);
92 typedef ex (*fcnp2)(const exprseq &e, int serial);
93
94 struct fcn_desc {
95         fcn_desc() : p(NULL), num_params(0), is_ginac(false), serial(0) {}
96         fcn_desc(fcnp func, int num) : p(func), num_params(num), is_ginac(false), serial(0) {}
97         fcn_desc(fcnp2 func, int num, int ser) : p((fcnp)func), num_params(num), is_ginac(true), serial(ser) {}
98
99         fcnp p;         // Pointer to function
100         int num_params; // Number of parameters (0 = arbitrary)
101         bool is_ginac;  // Flag: function is GiNaC function
102         int serial;     // GiNaC function serial number (if is_ginac == true)
103 };
104
105 typedef multimap<string, fcn_desc> fcn_tab;
106 static fcn_tab fcns;
107
108 static fcn_tab::const_iterator find_function(const ex &sym, int req_params);
109
110 // Table to map help topics to help strings
111 typedef multimap<string, string> help_tab;
112 static help_tab help;
113
114 static void insert_fcn_help(const char *name, const char *str);
115 static void print_help(const string &topic);
116 static void print_help_topics(void);
117 %}
118
119 /* Tokens (T_LITERAL means a literal value returned by the parser, but not
120    of class numeric or symbol (e.g. a constant or the FAIL object)) */
121 %token T_NUMBER T_SYMBOL T_LITERAL T_DIGITS T_QUOTE T_QUOTE2 T_QUOTE3
122 %token T_EQUAL T_NOTEQ T_LESSEQ T_GREATEREQ
123
124 %token T_QUIT T_WARRANTY T_PRINT T_IPRINT T_PRINTLATEX T_PRINTCSRC T_TIME
125 %token T_XYZZY T_INVENTORY T_LOOK T_SCORE T_COMPLEX_SYMBOLS T_REAL_SYMBOLS
126
127 /* Operator precedence and associativity */
128 %right '='
129 %left T_EQUAL T_NOTEQ
130 %left '<' '>' T_LESSEQ T_GREATEREQ
131 %left '+' '-'
132 %left '*' '/'
133 %nonassoc NEG
134 %right '^'
135 %nonassoc '!'
136
137 %start input
138
139
140 /*
141  *  Grammar rules
142  */
143
144 %%
145 input   : /* empty */
146         | input line
147         ;
148
149 line    : ';'
150         | exp ';' {
151                 try {
152                         cout << $1 << endl;
153                         push($1);
154                 } catch (exception &e) {
155                         cerr << e.what() << endl;
156                         YYERROR;
157                 }
158         }
159         | exp ':' {
160                 try {
161                         push($1);
162                 } catch (exception &e) {
163                         std::cerr << e.what() << endl;
164                         YYERROR;
165                 }
166         }
167         | T_PRINT '(' exp ')' ';' {
168                 try {
169                         $3.print(print_tree(std::cout));
170                 } catch (exception &e) {
171                         std::cerr << e.what() << endl;
172                         YYERROR;
173                 }
174         }
175         | T_IPRINT '(' exp ')' ';' {
176                 try {
177                         ex e = $3;
178                         if (!e.info(info_flags::integer))
179                                 throw (std::invalid_argument("argument to iprint() must be an integer"));
180                         long i = ex_to<numeric>(e).to_long();
181                         cout << i << endl;
182                         cout << "#o" << oct << i << endl;
183                         cout << "#x" << hex << i << dec << endl;
184                 } catch (exception &e) {
185                         cerr << e.what() << endl;
186                         YYERROR;
187                 }
188         }
189         | T_PRINTLATEX '(' exp ')' ';' {
190                 try {
191                         $3.print(print_latex(std::cout)); cout << endl;
192                 } catch (exception &e) {
193                         std::cerr << e.what() << endl;
194                         YYERROR;
195                 }
196         }
197         | T_PRINTCSRC '(' exp ')' ';' {
198                 try {
199                         $3.print(print_csrc_double(std::cout)); cout << endl;
200                 } catch (exception &e) {
201                         std::cerr << e.what() << endl;
202                         YYERROR;
203                 }
204         }
205         | '?' T_SYMBOL          {print_help(ex_to<symbol>($2).get_name());}
206         | '?' T_TIME            {print_help("time");}
207         | '?' T_PRINT           {print_help("print");}
208         | '?' T_IPRINT          {print_help("iprint");}
209         | '?' T_PRINTLATEX      {print_help("print_latex");}
210         | '?' T_PRINTCSRC       {print_help("print_csrc");}
211         | '?' '?'               {print_help_topics();}
212         | T_QUIT                {YYACCEPT;}
213         | T_WARRANTY {
214                 cout << "This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under\n";
215                 cout << "the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software\n";
216                 cout << "Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later\n";
217                 cout << "version.\n";
218                 cout << "This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT\n";
219                 cout << "ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS\n";
220                 cout << "FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more\n";
221                 cout << "details.\n";
222                 cout << "You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with\n";
223                 cout << "this program. If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave,\n";
224                 cout << "Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.\n";
225         }
226         | T_XYZZY               {cout << "Nothing happens.\n";}
227         | T_INVENTORY           {cout << "You're not carrying anything.\n";}
228         | T_LOOK                {cout << "You're in a twisty little maze of passages, all alike.\n";}
229         | T_SCORE {
230                 cout << "If you were to quit now, you would score ";
231                 cout << (syms.size() > 350 ? 350 : syms.size());
232                 cout << " out of a possible 350.\n";
233         }
234         | T_REAL_SYMBOLS { symboltype = domain::real; }
235         | T_COMPLEX_SYMBOLS { symboltype = domain::complex; }
236         | T_TIME { START_TIMER } '(' exp ')' { STOP_TIMER PRINT_TIME_USED }
237         | error ';'             {yyclearin; yyerrok;}
238         | error ':'             {yyclearin; yyerrok;}
239         ;
240
241 exp     : T_NUMBER              {$$ = $1;}
242         | T_SYMBOL              {
243                 exmap::const_iterator i = assigned_symbol_table.find($1);
244                 if (i == assigned_symbol_table.end())
245                         $$ = $1;
246                 else
247                         $$ = i->second.eval();
248         }
249         | '\'' T_SYMBOL '\''    {$$ = $2;}
250         | T_LITERAL             {$$ = $1;}
251         | T_DIGITS              {$$ = $1;}
252         | T_QUOTE               {$$ = exstack[0];}
253         | T_QUOTE2              {$$ = exstack[1];}
254         | T_QUOTE3              {$$ = exstack[2];}
255         | T_SYMBOL '(' exprseq ')' {
256                 fcn_tab::const_iterator i = find_function($1, $3.nops());
257                 if (i->second.is_ginac) {
258                         $$ = ((fcnp2)(i->second.p))(ex_to<exprseq>($3), i->second.serial);
259                 } else {
260                         $$ = (i->second.p)(ex_to<exprseq>($3));
261                 }
262         }
263         | T_DIGITS '=' T_NUMBER {$$ = $3; Digits = ex_to<numeric>($3).to_int();}
264         | T_SYMBOL '=' exp      {$$ = $3; assigned_symbol_table[$1] = $3; }
265         | exp T_EQUAL exp       {$$ = $1 == $3;}
266         | exp T_NOTEQ exp       {$$ = $1 != $3;}
267         | exp '<' exp           {$$ = $1 < $3;}
268         | exp T_LESSEQ exp      {$$ = $1 <= $3;}
269         | exp '>' exp           {$$ = $1 > $3;}
270         | exp T_GREATEREQ exp   {$$ = $1 >= $3;}
271         | exp '+' exp           {$$ = $1 + $3;}
272         | exp '-' exp           {$$ = $1 - $3;}
273         | exp '*' exp           {$$ = $1 * $3;}
274         | exp '/' exp           {$$ = $1 / $3;}
275         | '-' exp %prec NEG     {$$ = -$2;}
276         | '+' exp %prec NEG     {$$ = $2;}
277         | exp '^' exp           {$$ = power($1, $3);}
278         | exp '!'               {$$ = factorial($1);}
279         | '(' exp ')'           {$$ = $2;}
280         | '{' list_or_empty '}' {$$ = $2;}
281         | '[' matrix ']'        {$$ = lst_to_matrix(ex_to<lst>($2));}
282         ;
283
284 exprseq : exp                   {$$ = exprseq($1);}
285         | exprseq ',' exp       {exprseq es(ex_to<exprseq>($1)); $$ = es.append($3);}
286         ;
287
288 list_or_empty: /* empty */      {$$ = *new lst;}
289         | list                  {$$ = $1;}
290         ;
291
292 list    : exp                   {$$ = lst($1);}
293         | list ',' exp          {lst l(ex_to<lst>($1)); $$ = l.append($3);}
294         ;
295
296 matrix  : '[' row ']'           {$$ = lst($2);}
297         | matrix ',' '[' row ']' {lst l(ex_to<lst>($1)); $$ = l.append($4);}
298         ;
299
300 row     : exp                   {$$ = lst($1);}
301         | row ',' exp           {lst l(ex_to<lst>($1)); $$ = l.append($3);}
302         ;
303
304
305 /*
306  *  Routines
307  */
308
309 %%
310 // Error print routine
311 int yyerror(char *s)
312 {
313         cerr << s << " at " << yytext << endl;
314         return 0;
315 }
316
317 // Push expression "e" onto the expression stack (for ", "" and """)
318 static void push(const ex &e)
319 {
320         exstack[2] = exstack[1];
321         exstack[1] = exstack[0];
322         exstack[0] = e;
323 }
324
325
326 /*
327  *  Built-in functions
328  */
329
330 static ex f_collect(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].collect(e[1]);}
331 static ex f_collect_distributed(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].collect(e[1], true);}
332 static ex f_collect_common_factors(const exprseq &e) {return collect_common_factors(e[0]);}
333 static ex f_convert_H_to_Li(const exprseq &e) {return convert_H_to_Li(e[0], e[1]);}
334 static ex f_degree(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].degree(e[1]);}
335 static ex f_denom(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].denom();}
336 static ex f_eval1(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].eval();}
337 static ex f_evalf1(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].evalf();}
338 static ex f_evalm(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].evalm();}
339 static ex f_eval_integ(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].eval_integ();}
340 static ex f_expand(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].expand();}
341 static ex f_factor(const exprseq &e) {return factor(e[0]);}
342 static ex f_gcd(const exprseq &e) {return gcd(e[0], e[1]);}
343 static ex f_has(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].has(e[1]) ? ex(1) : ex(0);}
344 static ex f_lcm(const exprseq &e) {return lcm(e[0], e[1]);}
345 static ex f_lcoeff(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].lcoeff(e[1]);}
346 static ex f_ldegree(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].ldegree(e[1]);}
347 static ex f_lsolve(const exprseq &e) {return lsolve(e[0], e[1]);}
348 static ex f_nops(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].nops();}
349 static ex f_normal1(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].normal();}
350 static ex f_numer(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].numer();}
351 static ex f_numer_denom(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].numer_denom();}
352 static ex f_pow(const exprseq &e) {return pow(e[0], e[1]);}
353 static ex f_sqrt(const exprseq &e) {return sqrt(e[0]);}
354 static ex f_sqrfree1(const exprseq &e) {return sqrfree(e[0]);}
355 static ex f_subs2(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].subs(e[1]);}
356 static ex f_tcoeff(const exprseq &e) {return e[0].tcoeff(e[1]);}
357
358 #define CHECK_ARG(num, type, fcn) if (!is_a<type>(e[num])) throw(std::invalid_argument("argument " #num " to " #fcn "() must be a " #type))
359
360 static ex f_charpoly(const exprseq &e)
361 {
362         CHECK_ARG(0, matrix, charpoly);
363         return ex_to<matrix>(e[0]).charpoly(e[1]);
364 }
365
366 static ex f_coeff(const exprseq &e)
367 {
368         CHECK_ARG(2, numeric, coeff);
369         return e[0].coeff(e[1], ex_to<numeric>(e[2]).to_int());
370 }
371
372 static ex f_content(const exprseq &e)
373 {
374         return e[0].content(e[1]);
375 }
376
377 static ex f_decomp_rational(const exprseq &e)
378 {
379         return decomp_rational(e[0], e[1]);
380 }
381
382 static ex f_determinant(const exprseq &e)
383 {
384         CHECK_ARG(0, matrix, determinant);
385         return ex_to<matrix>(e[0]).determinant();
386 }
387
388 static ex f_diag(const exprseq &e)
389 {
390         size_t dim = e.nops();
391         matrix &m = *new matrix(dim, dim);
392         for (size_t i=0; i<dim; i++)
393                 m.set(i, i, e.op(i));
394         return m;
395 }
396
397 static ex f_diff2(const exprseq &e)
398 {
399         CHECK_ARG(1, symbol, diff);
400         return e[0].diff(ex_to<symbol>(e[1]));
401 }
402
403 static ex f_diff3(const exprseq &e)
404 {
405         CHECK_ARG(1, symbol, diff);
406         CHECK_ARG(2, numeric, diff);
407         return e[0].diff(ex_to<symbol>(e[1]), ex_to<numeric>(e[2]).to_int());
408 }
409
410 static ex f_divide(const exprseq &e)
411 {
412         ex q;
413         if (divide(e[0], e[1], q))
414                 return q;
415         else
416                 return fail();
417 }
418
419 static ex f_eval2(const exprseq &e)
420 {
421         CHECK_ARG(1, numeric, eval);
422         return e[0].eval(ex_to<numeric>(e[1]).to_int());
423 }
424
425 static ex f_evalf2(const exprseq &e)
426 {
427         CHECK_ARG(1, numeric, evalf);
428         return e[0].evalf(ex_to<numeric>(e[1]).to_int());
429 }
430
431 static ex f_find(const exprseq &e)
432 {
433         lst found;
434         e[0].find(e[1], found);
435         return found;
436 }
437
438 static ex f_fsolve(const exprseq &e)
439 {
440         CHECK_ARG(1, symbol, fsolve);
441         CHECK_ARG(2, numeric, fsolve);
442         CHECK_ARG(3, numeric, fsolve);
443         return fsolve(e[0], ex_to<symbol>(e[1]), ex_to<numeric>(e[2]), ex_to<numeric>(e[3]));
444 }
445
446 static ex f_integer_content(const exprseq &e)
447 {
448         return e[0].expand().integer_content();
449 }
450
451 static ex f_integral(const exprseq &e)
452 {
453         CHECK_ARG(0, symbol, integral);
454         return integral(e[0], e[1], e[2], e[3]);
455 }
456
457 static ex f_inverse(const exprseq &e)
458 {
459         CHECK_ARG(0, matrix, inverse);
460         return ex_to<matrix>(e[0]).inverse();
461 }
462
463 static ex f_is(const exprseq &e)
464 {
465         CHECK_ARG(0, relational, is);
466         return (bool)ex_to<relational>(e[0]) ? ex(1) : ex(0);
467 }
468
469 class apply_map_function : public map_function {
470         ex apply;
471 public:
472         apply_map_function(const ex & a) : apply(a) {}
473         virtual ~apply_map_function() {}
474         ex operator()(const ex & e) { return apply.subs(wild() == e, true); }
475 };
476
477 static ex f_map(const exprseq &e)
478 {
479         apply_map_function fcn(e[1]);
480         return e[0].map(fcn);
481 }
482
483 static ex f_match(const exprseq &e)
484 {
485         lst repl_lst;
486         if (e[0].match(e[1], repl_lst))
487                 return repl_lst;
488         else
489                 return fail();
490 }
491
492 static ex f_normal2(const exprseq &e)
493 {
494         CHECK_ARG(1, numeric, normal);
495         return e[0].normal(ex_to<numeric>(e[1]).to_int());
496 }
497
498 static ex f_op(const exprseq &e)
499 {
500         CHECK_ARG(1, numeric, op);
501         int n = ex_to<numeric>(e[1]).to_int();
502         if (n < 0 || n >= (int)e[0].nops())
503                 throw(std::out_of_range("second argument to op() is out of range"));
504         return e[0].op(n);
505 }
506
507 static ex f_prem(const exprseq &e)
508 {
509         return prem(e[0], e[1], e[2]);
510 }
511
512 static ex f_primpart(const exprseq &e)
513 {
514         return e[0].primpart(e[1]);
515 }
516
517 static ex f_quo(const exprseq &e)
518 {
519         return quo(e[0], e[1], e[2]);
520 }
521
522 static ex f_rank(const exprseq &e)
523 {
524         CHECK_ARG(0, matrix, rank);
525         return ex_to<matrix>(e[0]).rank();
526 }
527
528 static ex f_rem(const exprseq &e)
529 {
530         return rem(e[0], e[1], e[2]);
531 }
532
533 static ex f_resultant(const exprseq &e)
534 {
535         CHECK_ARG(2, symbol, resultant);
536         return resultant(e[0], e[1], ex_to<symbol>(e[2]));
537 }
538
539 static ex f_series(const exprseq &e)
540 {
541         CHECK_ARG(2, numeric, series);
542         return e[0].series(e[1], ex_to<numeric>(e[2]).to_int());
543 }
544
545 static ex f_sprem(const exprseq &e)
546 {
547         return sprem(e[0], e[1], e[2]);
548 }
549
550 static ex f_sqrfree2(const exprseq &e)
551 {
552         CHECK_ARG(1, lst, sqrfree);
553         return sqrfree(e[0], ex_to<lst>(e[1]));
554 }
555
556 static ex f_subs3(const exprseq &e)
557 {
558         CHECK_ARG(1, lst, subs);
559         CHECK_ARG(2, lst, subs);
560         return e[0].subs(ex_to<lst>(e[1]), ex_to<lst>(e[2]));
561 }
562
563 static ex f_trace(const exprseq &e)
564 {
565         CHECK_ARG(0, matrix, trace);
566         return ex_to<matrix>(e[0]).trace();
567 }
568
569 static ex f_transpose(const exprseq &e)
570 {
571         CHECK_ARG(0, matrix, transpose);
572         return ex_to<matrix>(e[0]).transpose();
573 }
574
575 static ex f_unassign(const exprseq &e)
576 {
577         CHECK_ARG(0, symbol, unassign);
578         exmap::iterator i = assigned_symbol_table.find(e[0]);
579         if (i != assigned_symbol_table.end())
580                 assigned_symbol_table.erase(i);
581         return e[0];
582 }
583
584 static ex f_unit(const exprseq &e)
585 {
586         return e[0].unit(e[1]);
587 }
588
589 static ex f_dummy(const exprseq &e)
590 {
591         throw(std::logic_error("dummy function called (shouldn't happen)"));
592 }
593
594 // Tables for initializing the "fcns" map and the function help topics
595 struct fcn_init {
596         const char *name;
597         fcnp p;
598         int num_params;
599 };
600
601 static const fcn_init builtin_fcns[] = {
602         {"charpoly", f_charpoly, 2},
603         {"coeff", f_coeff, 3},
604         {"collect", f_collect, 2},
605         {"collect_common_factors", f_collect_common_factors, 1},
606         {"collect_distributed", f_collect_distributed, 2},
607         {"content", f_content, 2},
608         {"convert_H_to_Li", f_convert_H_to_Li, 2},
609         {"decomp_rational", f_decomp_rational, 2},
610         {"degree", f_degree, 2},
611         {"denom", f_denom, 1},
612         {"determinant", f_determinant, 1},
613         {"diag", f_diag, 0},
614         {"diff", f_diff2, 2},
615         {"diff", f_diff3, 3},
616         {"divide", f_divide, 2},
617         {"eval", f_eval1, 1},
618         {"eval", f_eval2, 2},
619         {"evalf", f_evalf1, 1},
620         {"evalf", f_evalf2, 2},
621         {"evalm", f_evalm, 1},
622         {"eval_integ", f_eval_integ, 1},
623         {"expand", f_expand, 1},
624         {"factor", f_factor, 1},
625         {"find", f_find, 2},
626         {"fsolve", f_fsolve, 4},
627         {"gcd", f_gcd, 2},
628         {"has", f_has, 2},
629         {"integer_content", f_integer_content, 1},
630         {"integral", f_integral, 4},
631         {"inverse", f_inverse, 1},
632         {"iprint", f_dummy, 0},      // for Tab-completion
633         {"is", f_is, 1},
634         {"lcm", f_lcm, 2},
635         {"lcoeff", f_lcoeff, 2},
636         {"ldegree", f_ldegree, 2},
637         {"lsolve", f_lsolve, 2},
638         {"map", f_map, 2},
639         {"match", f_match, 2},
640         {"nops", f_nops, 1},
641         {"normal", f_normal1, 1},
642         {"normal", f_normal2, 2},
643         {"numer", f_numer, 1},
644         {"numer_denom", f_numer_denom, 1},
645         {"op", f_op, 2},
646         {"pow", f_pow, 2},
647         {"prem", f_prem, 3},
648         {"primpart", f_primpart, 2},
649         {"print", f_dummy, 0},       // for Tab-completion
650         {"print_csrc", f_dummy, 0},  // for Tab-completion
651         {"print_latex", f_dummy, 0}, // for Tab-completion
652         {"quo", f_quo, 3},
653         {"rank", f_rank, 1},
654         {"rem", f_rem, 3},
655         {"resultant", f_resultant, 3},
656         {"series", f_series, 3},
657         {"sprem", f_sprem, 3},
658         {"sqrfree", f_sqrfree1, 1},
659         {"sqrfree", f_sqrfree2, 2},
660         {"sqrt", f_sqrt, 1},
661         {"subs", f_subs2, 2},
662         {"subs", f_subs3, 3},
663         {"tcoeff", f_tcoeff, 2},
664         {"time", f_dummy, 0},        // for Tab-completion
665         {"trace", f_trace, 1},
666         {"transpose", f_transpose, 1},
667         {"unassign", f_unassign, 1},
668         {"unit", f_unit, 2},
669         {NULL, f_dummy, 0}           // End marker
670 };
671
672 struct fcn_help_init {
673         const char *name;
674         const char *help;
675 };
676
677 static const fcn_help_init builtin_help[] = {
678         {"acos", "inverse cosine function"},
679         {"acosh", "inverse hyperbolic cosine function"},
680         {"asin", "inverse sine function"},
681         {"asinh", "inverse hyperbolic sine function"},
682         {"atan", "inverse tangent function"},
683         {"atan2", "inverse tangent function with two arguments"},
684         {"atanh", "inverse hyperbolic tangent function"},
685         {"beta", "Beta function"},
686         {"binomial", "binomial function"},
687         {"cos", "cosine function"},
688         {"cosh", "hyperbolic cosine function"},
689         {"exp", "exponential function"},
690         {"factorial", "factorial function"},
691         {"lgamma", "natural logarithm of Gamma function"},
692         {"tgamma", "Gamma function"},
693         {"log", "natural logarithm"},
694         {"psi", "psi function\npsi(x) is the digamma function, psi(n,x) the nth polygamma function"},
695         {"sin", "sine function"},
696         {"sinh", "hyperbolic sine function"},
697         {"tan", "tangent function"},
698         {"tanh", "hyperbolic tangent function"},
699         {"zeta", "zeta function\nzeta(x) is Riemann's zeta function, zetaderiv(n,x) its nth derivative.\nIf x is a GiNaC::lst, it is a multiple zeta value\nzeta(x,s) is an alternating Euler sum"},
700         {"Li2", "dilogarithm"},
701         {"Li3", "trilogarithm"},
702         {"Li", "(multiple) polylogarithm"},
703         {"S", "Nielsen's generalized polylogarithm"},
704         {"H", "harmonic polylogarithm"},
705         {"Order", "order term function (for truncated power series)"},
706         {"Derivative", "inert differential operator"},
707         {NULL, NULL}    // End marker
708 };
709
710 #include "ginsh_extensions.h"
711
712
713 /*
714  *  Add functions to ginsh
715  */
716
717 // Functions from fcn_init array
718 static void insert_fcns(const fcn_init *p)
719 {
720         while (p->name) {
721                 fcns.insert(make_pair(string(p->name), fcn_desc(p->p, p->num_params)));
722                 p++;
723         }
724 }
725
726 static ex f_ginac_function(const exprseq &es, int serial)
727 {
728         return function(serial, es).eval(1);
729 }
730
731 // All registered GiNaC functions
732 namespace GiNaC {
733 void ginsh_get_ginac_functions(void)
734 {
735         vector<function_options>::const_iterator i = function::registered_functions().begin(), end = function::registered_functions().end();
736         unsigned serial = 0;
737         while (i != end) {
738                 fcns.insert(make_pair(i->get_name(), fcn_desc(f_ginac_function, i->get_nparams(), serial)));
739                 ++i;
740                 serial++;
741         }
742 }
743 }
744
745
746 /*
747  *  Find a function given a name and number of parameters. Throw exceptions on error.
748  */
749
750 static fcn_tab::const_iterator find_function(const ex &sym, int req_params)
751 {
752         const string &name = ex_to<symbol>(sym).get_name();
753         typedef fcn_tab::const_iterator I;
754         pair<I, I> b = fcns.equal_range(name);
755         if (b.first == b.second)
756                 throw(std::logic_error("unknown function '" + name + "'"));
757         else {
758                 for (I i=b.first; i!=b.second; i++)
759                         if ((i->second.num_params == 0) || (i->second.num_params == req_params))
760                                 return i;
761         }
762         throw(std::logic_error("invalid number of arguments to " + name + "()"));
763 }
764
765
766 /*
767  *  Insert help strings
768  */
769
770 // Normal help string
771 static void insert_help(const char *topic, const char *str)
772 {
773         help.insert(make_pair(string(topic), string(str)));
774 }
775
776 // Help string for functions, automatically generates synopsis
777 static void insert_fcn_help(const char *name, const char *str)
778 {
779         typedef fcn_tab::const_iterator I;
780         pair<I, I> b = fcns.equal_range(name);
781         if (b.first != b.second) {
782                 string help_str = string(name) + "(";
783                 for (int i=0; i<b.first->second.num_params; i++) {
784                         if (i)
785                                 help_str += ", ";
786                         help_str += "expression";
787                 }
788                 help_str += ") - ";
789                 help_str += str;
790                 help.insert(make_pair(string(name), help_str));
791         }
792 }
793
794 // Help strings for functions from fcn_help_init array
795 static void insert_help(const fcn_help_init *p)
796 {
797         while (p->name) {
798                 insert_fcn_help(p->name, p->help);
799                 p++;
800         }
801 }
802
803
804 /*
805  *  Print help to cout
806  */
807
808 // Help for a given topic
809 static void print_help(const string &topic)
810 {
811         typedef help_tab::const_iterator I;
812         pair<I, I> b = help.equal_range(topic);
813         if (b.first == b.second)
814                 cout << "no help for '" << topic << "'\n";
815         else {
816                 for (I i=b.first; i!=b.second; i++)
817                         cout << i->second << endl;
818         }
819 }
820
821 // List of help topics
822 static void print_help_topics(void)
823 {
824         cout << "Available help topics:\n";
825         help_tab::const_iterator i;
826         string last_name = string("*");
827         int num = 0;
828         for (i=help.begin(); i!=help.end(); i++) {
829                 // Don't print duplicates
830                 if (i->first != last_name) {
831                         if (num)
832                                 cout << ", ";
833                         num++;
834                         cout << i->first;
835                         last_name = i->first;
836                 }
837         }
838         cout << "\nTo get help for a certain topic, type ?topic\n";
839 }
840
841
842 /*
843  *  Function name completion functions for readline
844  */
845
846 static char *fcn_generator(const char *text, int state)
847 {
848         static int len;                         // Length of word to complete
849         static fcn_tab::const_iterator index;   // Iterator to function being currently considered
850
851         // If this is a new word to complete, initialize now
852         if (state == 0) {
853                 index = fcns.begin();
854                 len = strlen(text);
855         }
856
857         // Return the next function which partially matches
858         while (index != fcns.end()) {
859                 const char *fcn_name = index->first.c_str();
860                 ++index;
861                 if (strncmp(fcn_name, text, len) == 0)
862                         return strdup(fcn_name);
863         }
864         return NULL;
865 }
866
867 #ifdef REALLY_HAVE_LIBREADLINE
868 static char **fcn_completion(const char *text, int start, int end)
869 {
870         if (rl_line_buffer[0] == '!') {
871                 // For shell commands, revert back to filename completion
872                 rl_completion_append_character = orig_completion_append_character;
873                 rl_basic_word_break_characters = orig_basic_word_break_characters;
874                 rl_completer_word_break_characters = GINAC_RL_COMPLETER_CAST(rl_basic_word_break_characters);
875 #if (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR < 4) || (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR == 4 && GINAC_RL_VERSION_MINOR < 2)
876                 return completion_matches(const_cast<char *>(text), (CPFunction *)filename_completion_function);
877 #else
878                 return rl_completion_matches(text, rl_filename_completion_function);
879 #endif
880         } else {
881                 // Otherwise, complete function names
882                 rl_completion_append_character = '(';
883                 rl_basic_word_break_characters = " \t\n\"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\\]^`{|}~";
884                 rl_completer_word_break_characters = GINAC_RL_COMPLETER_CAST(rl_basic_word_break_characters);
885 #if (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR < 4) || (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR == 4 && GINAC_RL_VERSION_MINOR < 2)
886                 return completion_matches(const_cast<char *>(text), (CPFunction *)fcn_generator);
887 #else
888                 return rl_completion_matches(text, fcn_generator);
889 #endif
890         }
891 }
892 #endif // REALLY_HAVE_LIBREADLINE
893
894 void greeting(void)
895 {
896     cout << "ginsh - GiNaC Interactive Shell (" << PACKAGE << " V" << VERSION << ")" << endl;
897     cout << "  __,  _______  Copyright (C) 1999-2008 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,\n"
898          << " (__) *       | Germany.  This is free software with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.\n"
899          << "  ._) i N a C | You are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.\n"
900          << "<-------------' For details type `warranty;'.\n" << endl;
901     cout << "Type ?? for a list of help topics." << endl;
902 }
903
904 /*
905  *  Main program
906  */
907
908 int main(int argc, char **argv)
909 {
910         // Print banner in interactive mode
911         if (isatty(0)) 
912                 greeting();
913         assigned_symbol_table = exmap();
914
915         // Init function table
916         insert_fcns(builtin_fcns);
917         insert_fcns(extended_fcns);
918         ginsh_get_ginac_functions();
919
920         // Init help for operators (automatically generated from man page)
921         insert_help("operators", "Operators in falling order of precedence:");
922 #include "ginsh_op_help.h"
923
924         // Init help for built-in functions (automatically generated from man page)
925 #include "ginsh_fcn_help.h"
926
927         // Help for GiNaC functions is added manually
928         insert_help(builtin_help);
929         insert_help(extended_help);
930
931         // Help for other keywords
932         insert_help("print", "print(expression) - dumps the internal structure of the given expression (for debugging)");
933         insert_help("iprint", "iprint(expression) - prints the given integer expression in decimal, octal, and hexadecimal bases");
934         insert_help("print_latex", "print_latex(expression) - prints a LaTeX representation of the given expression");
935         insert_help("print_csrc", "print_csrc(expression) - prints a C source code representation of the given expression");
936
937 #ifdef REALLY_HAVE_LIBREADLINE
938         // Init readline completer
939         rl_readline_name = argv[0];
940 #if (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR < 4) || (GINAC_RL_VERSION_MAJOR == 4 && GINAC_RL_VERSION_MINOR < 2)
941         rl_attempted_completion_function = (CPPFunction *)fcn_completion;
942 #else
943         rl_attempted_completion_function = fcn_completion;
944 #endif
945         orig_completion_append_character = rl_completion_append_character;
946         orig_basic_word_break_characters = rl_basic_word_break_characters;
947 #endif
948
949         // Init input file list, open first file
950         num_files = argc - 1;
951         file_list = argv + 1;
952         if (num_files) {
953                 yyin = fopen(*file_list, "r");
954                 if (yyin == NULL) {
955                         cerr << "Can't open " << *file_list << endl;
956                         exit(1);
957                 }
958                 num_files--;
959                 file_list++;
960         }
961
962         // Parse input, catch all remaining exceptions
963         int result;
964 again:  try {
965                 result = yyparse();
966         } catch (exception &e) {
967                 cerr << e.what() << endl;
968                 goto again;
969         }
970         return result;
971 }