[GiNaC-list] Simplifying indexed expressions not workingonmulti-indices scalar_product

Chris Dams Chris.Dams at mi.infn.it
Fri Jul 28 07:08:36 CEST 2006

Dear Alejandro,

On Thu, 27 Jul 2006, Alejandro Limache wrote:

> The cases of inner products of physical quantities that I can recall
> always involve indices of the same dimension, but maybe
> in some general optimization or minimization problems
> one might have different dimensions.

It can quite easily get more hairy then that. In the standard model before
symmetry breaking the left-handed quark field has four indices that all
live in different spaces. In dimensional regularization there can be
indices that live in the same space, yet have a different dimension. The
latter case is the main reason that we really do care about the dimension.

> 1) to get some simplifications so as to have less terms to compute 
> numerically

You can always use algebraic substitution:
	indexed(T, idx(wild(0),3), idx(wild(1),3))
			* indexed(D, idx(wild(0),3), idx(wild(1),3))
		== P, 

> 2) to expand tensor expressions (combinations of sums and products) in
> indicial form (as I think is done in some libraries that use expression
> templates like blitz++) in order to reduce the loss of performance of
> C++ with respect to fortran o C code.

Do you mean the writing out of contractions as in A.i*B.i -> A.1*B.1 + ... 
+ A.3*B.3. That can be done using the function
ex expand_dummy_sum(const ex & e, bool subs_idx).

> 3) to do some analytical differentiation of terms I think these types of
> things could make a code more general, powerful and efficient (faster).

Do you mean differentiation with respect to indexed objects? Yes, that
certainly is very useful. It is not present in GiNaC at the moment. It is
not so difficult, though, to write your own function to do this. Just
write a function for it that uses a type switch. Below an example is given
of some code that I once wrote for this purpose. It is probably more
complicated then what you would need.

Best wishes,

ex int_deriv(const ex&x,const ex&y)
{  if(is_a<indexed>(x)&&is_a<indexed>(y)&&x.nops()==y.nops())
   {  ex result=int_deriv(x.op(0),y.op(0));
         return 0;
      for(int i=1;i<x.nops();++i)
      {  if(is_a<varidx>(x.op(i))&&is_a<varidx>(y.op(i)))
         {  ex yother=ex_to<varidx>(y.op(i)).toggle_variance();
      return result;
   else if(is_a<function>(x)&&x.nops()==1)
   {  ex deriv,repl;
      {  deriv=y.op(0);
      else if(is_a<lst>(y)&&y.nops()==2)
      {  deriv=y.op(1);
      {  deriv=y;
      {  unsigned ser=ex_to<function>(deriv).get_serial();
            return 0;
         return x.subs(x==repl)*nullify(x.op(0)==deriv.op(0));
   else if(is_a<mul>(x)||is_a<ncmul>(x)||is_a<lst>(x)||
   {  ex result=0;
      for(int i=0;i<x.nops();++i)
      {  ex factor=int_deriv(x.op(i),y);
      return result;
   else if(is_a<add>(x))
   {  exvector result;
      for(int i=0;i<x.nops();++i)
      {  if(!(i%1000)&&x.nops()>1000)
            cerr << i << "/" << x.nops() << endl;
      return add(result);
   return 0;

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