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[ginac.git] / ginac / mul.cpp
1 /** @file mul.cpp
2  *
3  *  Implementation of GiNaC's products of expressions. */
4
5 /*
6  *  GiNaC Copyright (C) 1999-2019 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany
7  *
8  *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
9  *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
10  *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
11  *  (at your option) any later version.
12  *
13  *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
14  *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
15  *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
16  *  GNU General Public License for more details.
17  *
18  *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
19  *  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
20  *  Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
21  */
22
23 #include "mul.h"
24 #include "add.h"
25 #include "power.h"
26 #include "operators.h"
27 #include "matrix.h"
28 #include "indexed.h"
29 #include "lst.h"
30 #include "archive.h"
31 #include "utils.h"
32 #include "symbol.h"
33 #include "compiler.h"
34
35 #include <iostream>
36 #include <limits>
37 #include <stdexcept>
38 #include <vector>
39
40 namespace GiNaC {
41
42 GINAC_IMPLEMENT_REGISTERED_CLASS_OPT(mul, expairseq,
43   print_func<print_context>(&mul::do_print).
44   print_func<print_latex>(&mul::do_print_latex).
45   print_func<print_csrc>(&mul::do_print_csrc).
46   print_func<print_tree>(&mul::do_print_tree).
47   print_func<print_python_repr>(&mul::do_print_python_repr))
48
49
50 //////////
51 // default constructor
52 //////////
53
54 mul::mul()
55 {
56 }
57
58 //////////
59 // other constructors
60 //////////
61
62 // public
63
64 mul::mul(const ex & lh, const ex & rh)
65 {
66         overall_coeff = _ex1;
67         construct_from_2_ex(lh,rh);
68         GINAC_ASSERT(is_canonical());
69 }
70
71 mul::mul(const exvector & v)
72 {
73         overall_coeff = _ex1;
74         construct_from_exvector(v);
75         GINAC_ASSERT(is_canonical());
76 }
77
78 mul::mul(const epvector & v)
79 {
80         overall_coeff = _ex1;
81         construct_from_epvector(v);
82         GINAC_ASSERT(is_canonical());
83 }
84
85 mul::mul(const epvector & v, const ex & oc, bool do_index_renaming)
86 {
87         overall_coeff = oc;
88         construct_from_epvector(v, do_index_renaming);
89         GINAC_ASSERT(is_canonical());
90 }
91
92 mul::mul(epvector && vp)
93 {
94         overall_coeff = _ex1;
95         construct_from_epvector(std::move(vp));
96         GINAC_ASSERT(is_canonical());
97 }
98
99 mul::mul(epvector && vp, const ex & oc, bool do_index_renaming)
100 {
101         overall_coeff = oc;
102         construct_from_epvector(std::move(vp), do_index_renaming);
103         GINAC_ASSERT(is_canonical());
104 }
105
106 mul::mul(const ex & lh, const ex & mh, const ex & rh)
107 {
108         exvector factors;
109         factors.reserve(3);
110         factors.push_back(lh);
111         factors.push_back(mh);
112         factors.push_back(rh);
113         overall_coeff = _ex1;
114         construct_from_exvector(factors);
115         GINAC_ASSERT(is_canonical());
116 }
117
118 //////////
119 // archiving
120 //////////
121
122 //////////
123 // functions overriding virtual functions from base classes
124 //////////
125
126 void mul::print_overall_coeff(const print_context & c, const char *mul_sym) const
127 {
128         const numeric &coeff = ex_to<numeric>(overall_coeff);
129         if (coeff.csgn() == -1)
130                 c.s << '-';
131         if (!coeff.is_equal(*_num1_p) &&
132                 !coeff.is_equal(*_num_1_p)) {
133                 if (coeff.is_rational()) {
134                         if (coeff.is_negative())
135                                 (-coeff).print(c);
136                         else
137                                 coeff.print(c);
138                 } else {
139                         if (coeff.csgn() == -1)
140                                 (-coeff).print(c, precedence());
141                         else
142                                 coeff.print(c, precedence());
143                 }
144                 c.s << mul_sym;
145         }
146 }
147
148 void mul::do_print(const print_context & c, unsigned level) const
149 {
150         if (precedence() <= level)
151                 c.s << '(';
152
153         print_overall_coeff(c, "*");
154
155         bool first = true;
156         for (auto & it : seq) {
157                 if (!first)
158                         c.s << '*';
159                 else
160                         first = false;
161                 recombine_pair_to_ex(it).print(c, precedence());
162         }
163
164         if (precedence() <= level)
165                 c.s << ')';
166 }
167
168 void mul::do_print_latex(const print_latex & c, unsigned level) const
169 {
170         if (precedence() <= level)
171                 c.s << "{(";
172
173         print_overall_coeff(c, " ");
174
175         // Separate factors into those with negative numeric exponent
176         // and all others
177         exvector neg_powers, others;
178         for (auto & it : seq) {
179                 GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(it.coeff));
180                 if (ex_to<numeric>(it.coeff).is_negative())
181                         neg_powers.push_back(recombine_pair_to_ex(expair(it.rest, -it.coeff)));
182                 else
183                         others.push_back(recombine_pair_to_ex(it));
184         }
185
186         if (!neg_powers.empty()) {
187
188                 // Factors with negative exponent are printed as a fraction
189                 c.s << "\\frac{";
190                 mul(others).eval().print(c);
191                 c.s << "}{";
192                 mul(neg_powers).eval().print(c);
193                 c.s << "}";
194
195         } else {
196
197                 // All other factors are printed in the ordinary way
198                 for (auto & vit : others) {
199                         c.s << ' ';
200                         vit.print(c, precedence());
201                 }
202         }
203
204         if (precedence() <= level)
205                 c.s << ")}";
206 }
207
208 void mul::do_print_csrc(const print_csrc & c, unsigned level) const
209 {
210         if (precedence() <= level)
211                 c.s << "(";
212
213         if (!overall_coeff.is_equal(_ex1)) {
214                 if (overall_coeff.is_equal(_ex_1))
215                         c.s << "-";
216                 else {
217                         overall_coeff.print(c, precedence());
218                         c.s << "*";
219                 }
220         }
221
222         // Print arguments, separated by "*" or "/"
223         auto it = seq.begin(), itend = seq.end();
224         while (it != itend) {
225
226                 // If the first argument is a negative integer power, it gets printed as "1.0/<expr>"
227                 bool needclosingparenthesis = false;
228                 if (it == seq.begin() && it->coeff.info(info_flags::negint)) {
229                         if (is_a<print_csrc_cl_N>(c)) {
230                                 c.s << "recip(";
231                                 needclosingparenthesis = true;
232                         } else
233                                 c.s << "1.0/";
234                 }
235
236                 // If the exponent is 1 or -1, it is left out
237                 if (it->coeff.is_equal(_ex1) || it->coeff.is_equal(_ex_1))
238                         it->rest.print(c, precedence());
239                 else if (it->coeff.info(info_flags::negint))
240                         ex(power(it->rest, -ex_to<numeric>(it->coeff))).print(c, level);
241                 else
242                         ex(power(it->rest, ex_to<numeric>(it->coeff))).print(c, level);
243
244                 if (needclosingparenthesis)
245                         c.s << ")";
246
247                 // Separator is "/" for negative integer powers, "*" otherwise
248                 ++it;
249                 if (it != itend) {
250                         if (it->coeff.info(info_flags::negint))
251                                 c.s << "/";
252                         else
253                                 c.s << "*";
254                 }
255         }
256
257         if (precedence() <= level)
258                 c.s << ")";
259 }
260
261 void mul::do_print_python_repr(const print_python_repr & c, unsigned level) const
262 {
263         c.s << class_name() << '(';
264         op(0).print(c);
265         for (size_t i=1; i<nops(); ++i) {
266                 c.s << ',';
267                 op(i).print(c);
268         }
269         c.s << ')';
270 }
271
272 bool mul::info(unsigned inf) const
273 {
274         switch (inf) {
275                 case info_flags::polynomial:
276                 case info_flags::integer_polynomial:
277                 case info_flags::cinteger_polynomial:
278                 case info_flags::rational_polynomial:
279                 case info_flags::real:
280                 case info_flags::rational:
281                 case info_flags::integer:
282                 case info_flags::crational:
283                 case info_flags::cinteger:
284                 case info_flags::even:
285                 case info_flags::crational_polynomial:
286                 case info_flags::rational_function: {
287                         for (auto & it : seq) {
288                                 if (!recombine_pair_to_ex(it).info(inf))
289                                         return false;
290                         }
291                         if (overall_coeff.is_equal(*_num1_p) && inf == info_flags::even)
292                                 return true;
293                         return overall_coeff.info(inf);
294                 }
295                 case info_flags::positive:
296                 case info_flags::negative: {
297                         if ((inf==info_flags::positive) && (flags & status_flags::is_positive))
298                                 return true;
299                         else if ((inf==info_flags::negative) && (flags & status_flags::is_negative))
300                                 return true;
301                         if (flags & status_flags::purely_indefinite)
302                                 return false;
303
304                         bool pos = true;
305                         for (auto & it : seq) {
306                                 const ex& factor = recombine_pair_to_ex(it);
307                                 if (factor.info(info_flags::positive))
308                                         continue;
309                                 else if (factor.info(info_flags::negative))
310                                         pos = !pos;
311                                 else
312                                         return false;
313                         }
314                         if (overall_coeff.info(info_flags::negative))
315                                 pos = !pos;
316                         setflag(pos ? status_flags::is_positive : status_flags::is_negative);
317                         return (inf == info_flags::positive? pos : !pos);
318                 }
319                 case info_flags::nonnegative: {
320                         if  (flags & status_flags::is_positive)
321                                 return true;
322                         bool pos = true;
323                         for (auto & it : seq) {
324                                 const ex& factor = recombine_pair_to_ex(it);
325                                 if (factor.info(info_flags::nonnegative) || factor.info(info_flags::positive))
326                                         continue;
327                                 else if (factor.info(info_flags::negative))
328                                         pos = !pos;
329                                 else
330                                         return false;
331                         }
332                         return (overall_coeff.info(info_flags::negative)? !pos : pos);
333                 }
334                 case info_flags::posint:
335                 case info_flags::negint: {
336                         bool pos = true;
337                         for (auto & it : seq) {
338                                 const ex& factor = recombine_pair_to_ex(it);
339                                 if (factor.info(info_flags::posint))
340                                         continue;
341                                 else if (factor.info(info_flags::negint))
342                                         pos = !pos;
343                                 else
344                                         return false;
345                         }
346                         if (overall_coeff.info(info_flags::negint))
347                                 pos = !pos;
348                         else if (!overall_coeff.info(info_flags::posint))
349                                 return false;
350                         return (inf ==info_flags::posint? pos : !pos); 
351                 }
352                 case info_flags::nonnegint: {
353                         bool pos = true;
354                         for (auto & it : seq) {
355                                 const ex& factor = recombine_pair_to_ex(it);
356                                 if (factor.info(info_flags::nonnegint) || factor.info(info_flags::posint))
357                                         continue;
358                                 else if (factor.info(info_flags::negint))
359                                         pos = !pos;
360                                 else
361                                         return false;
362                         }
363                         if (overall_coeff.info(info_flags::negint))
364                                 pos = !pos;
365                         else if (!overall_coeff.info(info_flags::posint))
366                                 return false;
367                         return pos; 
368                 }
369                 case info_flags::indefinite: {
370                         if (flags & status_flags::purely_indefinite)
371                                 return true;
372                         if (flags & (status_flags::is_positive | status_flags::is_negative))
373                                 return false;
374                         for (auto & it : seq) {
375                                 const ex& term = recombine_pair_to_ex(it);
376                                 if (term.info(info_flags::positive) || term.info(info_flags::negative))
377                                         return false;
378                         }
379                         setflag(status_flags::purely_indefinite);
380                         return true;
381                 }
382         }
383         return inherited::info(inf);
384 }
385
386 bool mul::is_polynomial(const ex & var) const
387 {
388         for (auto & it : seq) {
389                 if (!it.rest.is_polynomial(var) ||
390                     (it.rest.has(var) && !it.coeff.info(info_flags::nonnegint))) {
391                         return false;
392                 }
393         }
394         return true;
395 }
396
397 int mul::degree(const ex & s) const
398 {
399         // Sum up degrees of factors
400         int deg_sum = 0;
401         for (auto & it : seq) {
402                 if (ex_to<numeric>(it.coeff).is_integer())
403                         deg_sum += recombine_pair_to_ex(it).degree(s);
404                 else {
405                         if (it.rest.has(s))
406                                 throw std::runtime_error("mul::degree() undefined degree because of non-integer exponent");
407                 }
408         }
409         return deg_sum;
410 }
411
412 int mul::ldegree(const ex & s) const
413 {
414         // Sum up degrees of factors
415         int deg_sum = 0;
416         for (auto & it : seq) {
417                 if (ex_to<numeric>(it.coeff).is_integer())
418                         deg_sum += recombine_pair_to_ex(it).ldegree(s);
419                 else {
420                         if (it.rest.has(s))
421                                 throw std::runtime_error("mul::ldegree() undefined degree because of non-integer exponent");
422                 }
423         }
424         return deg_sum;
425 }
426
427 ex mul::coeff(const ex & s, int n) const
428 {
429         exvector coeffseq;
430         coeffseq.reserve(seq.size()+1);
431         
432         if (n==0) {
433                 // product of individual coeffs
434                 // if a non-zero power of s is found, the resulting product will be 0
435                 for (auto & it : seq)
436                         coeffseq.push_back(recombine_pair_to_ex(it).coeff(s,n));
437                 coeffseq.push_back(overall_coeff);
438                 return dynallocate<mul>(coeffseq);
439         }
440         
441         bool coeff_found = false;
442         for (auto & it : seq) {
443                 ex t = recombine_pair_to_ex(it);
444                 ex c = t.coeff(s, n);
445                 if (!c.is_zero()) {
446                         coeffseq.push_back(c);
447                         coeff_found = 1;
448                 } else {
449                         coeffseq.push_back(t);
450                 }
451         }
452         if (coeff_found) {
453                 coeffseq.push_back(overall_coeff);
454                 return dynallocate<mul>(coeffseq);
455         }
456         
457         return _ex0;
458 }
459
460 /** Perform automatic term rewriting rules in this class.  In the following
461  *  x, x1, x2,... stand for a symbolic variables of type ex and c, c1, c2...
462  *  stand for such expressions that contain a plain number.
463  *  - *(...,x;0) -> 0
464  *  - *(+(x1,x2,...);c) -> *(+(*(x1,c),*(x2,c),...))
465  *  - *(x;1) -> x
466  *  - *(;c) -> c
467  */
468 ex mul::eval() const
469 {
470         if (flags & status_flags::evaluated) {
471                 GINAC_ASSERT(seq.size()>0);
472                 GINAC_ASSERT(seq.size()>1 || !overall_coeff.is_equal(_ex1));
473                 return *this;
474         }
475
476         const epvector evaled = evalchildren();
477         if (unlikely(!evaled.empty())) {
478                 // start over evaluating a new object
479                 return dynallocate<mul>(std::move(evaled), overall_coeff);
480         }
481
482         size_t seq_size = seq.size();
483         if (overall_coeff.is_zero()) {
484                 // *(...,x;0) -> 0
485                 return _ex0;
486         } else if (seq_size==0) {
487                 // *(;c) -> c
488                 return overall_coeff;
489         } else if (seq_size==1 && overall_coeff.is_equal(_ex1)) {
490                 // *(x;1) -> x
491                 return recombine_pair_to_ex(*(seq.begin()));
492         } else if ((seq_size==1) &&
493                    is_exactly_a<add>((*seq.begin()).rest) &&
494                    ex_to<numeric>((*seq.begin()).coeff).is_equal(*_num1_p)) {
495                 // *(+(x,y,...);c) -> +(*(x,c),*(y,c),...) (c numeric(), no powers of +())
496                 const add & addref = ex_to<add>((*seq.begin()).rest);
497                 epvector distrseq;
498                 distrseq.reserve(addref.seq.size());
499                 for (auto & it : addref.seq) {
500                         distrseq.push_back(addref.combine_pair_with_coeff_to_pair(it, overall_coeff));
501                 }
502                 return dynallocate<add>(std::move(distrseq),
503                                         ex_to<numeric>(addref.overall_coeff).mul_dyn(ex_to<numeric>(overall_coeff)))
504                         .setflag(status_flags::evaluated);
505         } else if ((seq_size >= 2) && (! (flags & status_flags::expanded))) {
506                 // Strip the content and the unit part from each term. Thus
507                 // things like (-x+a)*(3*x-3*a) automagically turn into - 3*(x-a)^2
508
509                 auto i = seq.begin(), last = seq.end();
510                 auto j = seq.begin();
511                 epvector s;
512                 numeric oc = *_num1_p;
513                 bool something_changed = false;
514                 while (i!=last) {
515                         if (likely(! (is_a<add>(i->rest) && i->coeff.is_equal(_ex1)))) {
516                                 // power::eval has such a rule, no need to handle powers here
517                                 ++i;
518                                 continue;
519                         }
520
521                         // XXX: What is the best way to check if the polynomial is a primitive? 
522                         numeric c = i->rest.integer_content();
523                         const numeric lead_coeff =
524                                 ex_to<numeric>(ex_to<add>(i->rest).seq.begin()->coeff).div(c);
525                         const bool canonicalizable = lead_coeff.is_integer();
526
527                         // XXX: The main variable is chosen in a random way, so this code 
528                         // does NOT transform the term into the canonical form (thus, in some
529                         // very unlucky event it can even loop forever). Hopefully the main
530                         // variable will be the same for all terms in *this
531                         const bool unit_normal = lead_coeff.is_pos_integer();
532                         if (likely((c == *_num1_p) && ((! canonicalizable) || unit_normal))) {
533                                 ++i;
534                                 continue;
535                         }
536
537                         if (! something_changed) {
538                                 s.reserve(seq_size);
539                                 something_changed = true;
540                         }
541
542                         while ((j!=i) && (j!=last)) {
543                                 s.push_back(*j);
544                                 ++j;
545                         }
546
547                         if (! unit_normal)
548                                 c = c.mul(*_num_1_p);
549
550                         oc = oc.mul(c);
551
552                         // divide add by the number in place to save at least 2 .eval() calls
553                         const add& addref = ex_to<add>(i->rest);
554                         add & primitive = dynallocate<add>(addref);
555                         primitive.clearflag(status_flags::hash_calculated);
556                         primitive.overall_coeff = ex_to<numeric>(primitive.overall_coeff).div_dyn(c);
557                         for (auto & ai : primitive.seq)
558                                 ai.coeff = ex_to<numeric>(ai.coeff).div_dyn(c);
559
560                         s.push_back(expair(primitive, _ex1));
561
562                         ++i;
563                         ++j;
564                 }
565                 if (something_changed) {
566                         while (j!=last) {
567                                 s.push_back(*j);
568                                 ++j;
569                         }
570                         return dynallocate<mul>(std::move(s), ex_to<numeric>(overall_coeff).mul_dyn(oc));
571                 }
572         }
573
574         return this->hold();
575 }
576
577 ex mul::evalf() const
578 {
579         epvector s;
580         s.reserve(seq.size());
581
582         for (auto & it : seq)
583                 s.push_back(expair(it.rest.evalf(), it.coeff));
584         return dynallocate<mul>(std::move(s), overall_coeff.evalf());
585 }
586
587 void mul::find_real_imag(ex & rp, ex & ip) const
588 {
589         rp = overall_coeff.real_part();
590         ip = overall_coeff.imag_part();
591         for (auto & it : seq) {
592                 ex factor = recombine_pair_to_ex(it);
593                 ex new_rp = factor.real_part();
594                 ex new_ip = factor.imag_part();
595                 if (new_ip.is_zero()) {
596                         rp *= new_rp;
597                         ip *= new_rp;
598                 } else {
599                         ex temp = rp*new_rp - ip*new_ip;
600                         ip = ip*new_rp + rp*new_ip;
601                         rp = temp;
602                 }
603         }
604         rp = rp.expand();
605         ip = ip.expand();
606 }
607
608 ex mul::real_part() const
609 {
610         ex rp, ip;
611         find_real_imag(rp, ip);
612         return rp;
613 }
614
615 ex mul::imag_part() const
616 {
617         ex rp, ip;
618         find_real_imag(rp, ip);
619         return ip;
620 }
621
622 ex mul::evalm() const
623 {
624         // numeric*matrix
625         if (seq.size() == 1 && seq[0].coeff.is_equal(_ex1)
626          && is_a<matrix>(seq[0].rest))
627                 return ex_to<matrix>(seq[0].rest).mul(ex_to<numeric>(overall_coeff));
628
629         // Evaluate children first, look whether there are any matrices at all
630         // (there can be either no matrices or one matrix; if there were more
631         // than one matrix, it would be a non-commutative product)
632         epvector s;
633         s.reserve(seq.size());
634
635         bool have_matrix = false;
636         epvector::iterator the_matrix;
637
638         for (auto & it : seq) {
639                 const ex &m = recombine_pair_to_ex(it).evalm();
640                 s.push_back(split_ex_to_pair(m));
641                 if (is_a<matrix>(m)) {
642                         have_matrix = true;
643                         the_matrix = s.end() - 1;
644                 }
645         }
646
647         if (have_matrix) {
648
649                 // The product contained a matrix. We will multiply all other factors
650                 // into that matrix.
651                 matrix m = ex_to<matrix>(the_matrix->rest);
652                 s.erase(the_matrix);
653                 ex scalar = dynallocate<mul>(std::move(s), overall_coeff);
654                 return m.mul_scalar(scalar);
655
656         } else
657                 return dynallocate<mul>(std::move(s), overall_coeff);
658 }
659
660 ex mul::eval_ncmul(const exvector & v) const
661 {
662         if (seq.empty())
663                 return inherited::eval_ncmul(v);
664
665         // Find first noncommutative element and call its eval_ncmul()
666         for (auto & it : seq)
667                 if (it.rest.return_type() == return_types::noncommutative)
668                         return it.rest.eval_ncmul(v);
669         return inherited::eval_ncmul(v);
670 }
671
672 bool tryfactsubs(const ex & origfactor, const ex & patternfactor, int & nummatches, exmap& repls)
673 {       
674         ex origbase;
675         int origexponent;
676         int origexpsign;
677
678         if (is_exactly_a<power>(origfactor) && origfactor.op(1).info(info_flags::integer)) {
679                 origbase = origfactor.op(0);
680                 int expon = ex_to<numeric>(origfactor.op(1)).to_int();
681                 origexponent = expon > 0 ? expon : -expon;
682                 origexpsign = expon > 0 ? 1 : -1;
683         } else {
684                 origbase = origfactor;
685                 origexponent = 1;
686                 origexpsign = 1;
687         }
688
689         ex patternbase;
690         int patternexponent;
691         int patternexpsign;
692
693         if (is_exactly_a<power>(patternfactor) && patternfactor.op(1).info(info_flags::integer)) {
694                 patternbase = patternfactor.op(0);
695                 int expon = ex_to<numeric>(patternfactor.op(1)).to_int();
696                 patternexponent = expon > 0 ? expon : -expon;
697                 patternexpsign = expon > 0 ? 1 : -1;
698         } else {
699                 patternbase = patternfactor;
700                 patternexponent = 1;
701                 patternexpsign = 1;
702         }
703
704         exmap saverepls = repls;
705         if (origexponent < patternexponent || origexpsign != patternexpsign || !origbase.match(patternbase,saverepls))
706                 return false;
707         repls = saverepls;
708
709         int newnummatches = origexponent / patternexponent;
710         if (newnummatches < nummatches)
711                 nummatches = newnummatches;
712         return true;
713 }
714
715 /** Checks whether e matches to the pattern pat and the (possibly to be updated)
716   * list of replacements repls. This matching is in the sense of algebraic
717   * substitutions. Matching starts with pat.op(factor) of the pattern because
718   * the factors before this one have already been matched. The (possibly
719   * updated) number of matches is in nummatches. subsed[i] is true for factors
720   * that already have been replaced by previous substitutions and matched[i]
721   * is true for factors that have been matched by the current match.
722   */
723 bool algebraic_match_mul_with_mul(const mul &e, const ex &pat, exmap& repls,
724                                   int factor, int &nummatches, const std::vector<bool> &subsed,
725                                   std::vector<bool> &matched)
726 {
727         GINAC_ASSERT(subsed.size() == e.nops());
728         GINAC_ASSERT(matched.size() == e.nops());
729
730         if (factor == (int)pat.nops())
731                 return true;
732
733         for (size_t i=0; i<e.nops(); ++i) {
734                 if(subsed[i] || matched[i])
735                         continue;
736                 exmap newrepls = repls;
737                 int newnummatches = nummatches;
738                 if (tryfactsubs(e.op(i), pat.op(factor), newnummatches, newrepls)) {
739                         matched[i] = true;
740                         if (algebraic_match_mul_with_mul(e, pat, newrepls, factor+1,
741                                         newnummatches, subsed, matched)) {
742                                 repls = newrepls;
743                                 nummatches = newnummatches;
744                                 return true;
745                         }
746                         else
747                                 matched[i] = false;
748                 }
749         }
750
751         return false;
752 }
753
754 bool mul::has(const ex & pattern, unsigned options) const
755 {
756         if(!(options & has_options::algebraic))
757                 return basic::has(pattern,options);
758         if(is_a<mul>(pattern)) {
759                 exmap repls;
760                 int nummatches = std::numeric_limits<int>::max();
761                 std::vector<bool> subsed(nops(), false);
762                 std::vector<bool> matched(nops(), false);
763                 if(algebraic_match_mul_with_mul(*this, pattern, repls, 0, nummatches,
764                                 subsed, matched))
765                         return true;
766         }
767         return basic::has(pattern, options);
768 }
769
770 ex mul::algebraic_subs_mul(const exmap & m, unsigned options) const
771 {       
772         std::vector<bool> subsed(nops(), false);
773         ex divide_by = 1;
774         ex multiply_by = 1;
775
776         for (auto & it : m) {
777
778                 if (is_exactly_a<mul>(it.first)) {
779 retry1:
780                         int nummatches = std::numeric_limits<int>::max();
781                         std::vector<bool> currsubsed(nops(), false);
782                         exmap repls;
783                         
784                         if (!algebraic_match_mul_with_mul(*this, it.first, repls, 0, nummatches, subsed, currsubsed))
785                                 continue;
786
787                         for (size_t j=0; j<subsed.size(); j++)
788                                 if (currsubsed[j])
789                                         subsed[j] = true;
790                         ex subsed_pattern
791                                 = it.first.subs(repls, subs_options::no_pattern);
792                         divide_by *= pow(subsed_pattern, nummatches);
793                         ex subsed_result
794                                 = it.second.subs(repls, subs_options::no_pattern);
795                         multiply_by *= pow(subsed_result, nummatches);
796                         goto retry1;
797
798                 } else {
799
800                         for (size_t j=0; j<this->nops(); j++) {
801                                 int nummatches = std::numeric_limits<int>::max();
802                                 exmap repls;
803                                 if (!subsed[j] && tryfactsubs(op(j), it.first, nummatches, repls)){
804                                         subsed[j] = true;
805                                         ex subsed_pattern
806                                                 = it.first.subs(repls, subs_options::no_pattern);
807                                         divide_by *= pow(subsed_pattern, nummatches);
808                                         ex subsed_result
809                                                 = it.second.subs(repls, subs_options::no_pattern);
810                                         multiply_by *= pow(subsed_result, nummatches);
811                                 }
812                         }
813                 }
814         }
815
816         bool subsfound = false;
817         for (size_t i=0; i<subsed.size(); i++) {
818                 if (subsed[i]) {
819                         subsfound = true;
820                         break;
821                 }
822         }
823         if (!subsfound)
824                 return subs_one_level(m, options | subs_options::algebraic);
825
826         return ((*this)/divide_by)*multiply_by;
827 }
828
829 ex mul::conjugate() const
830 {
831         // The base class' method is wrong here because we have to be careful at
832         // branch cuts. power::conjugate takes care of that already, so use it.
833         std::unique_ptr<epvector> newepv(nullptr);
834         for (auto i=seq.begin(); i!=seq.end(); ++i) {
835                 if (newepv) {
836                         newepv->push_back(split_ex_to_pair(recombine_pair_to_ex(*i).conjugate()));
837                         continue;
838                 }
839                 ex x = recombine_pair_to_ex(*i);
840                 ex c = x.conjugate();
841                 if (c.is_equal(x)) {
842                         continue;
843                 }
844                 newepv.reset(new epvector);
845                 newepv->reserve(seq.size());
846                 for (auto j=seq.begin(); j!=i; ++j) {
847                         newepv->push_back(*j);
848                 }
849                 newepv->push_back(split_ex_to_pair(c));
850         }
851         ex x = overall_coeff.conjugate();
852         if (!newepv && are_ex_trivially_equal(x, overall_coeff)) {
853                 return *this;
854         }
855         return thisexpairseq(newepv ? std::move(*newepv) : seq, x);
856 }
857
858
859 // protected
860
861 /** Implementation of ex::diff() for a product.  It applies the product rule.
862  *  @see ex::diff */
863 ex mul::derivative(const symbol & s) const
864 {
865         size_t num = seq.size();
866         exvector addseq;
867         addseq.reserve(num);
868         
869         // D(a*b*c) = D(a)*b*c + a*D(b)*c + a*b*D(c)
870         epvector mulseq = seq;
871         auto i = seq.begin(), end = seq.end();
872         auto i2 = mulseq.begin();
873         while (i != end) {
874                 expair ep = split_ex_to_pair(pow(i->rest, i->coeff - _ex1) *
875                                              i->rest.diff(s));
876                 ep.swap(*i2);
877                 addseq.push_back(dynallocate<mul>(mulseq, overall_coeff * i->coeff));
878                 ep.swap(*i2);
879                 ++i; ++i2;
880         }
881         return dynallocate<add>(addseq);
882 }
883
884 int mul::compare_same_type(const basic & other) const
885 {
886         return inherited::compare_same_type(other);
887 }
888
889 unsigned mul::return_type() const
890 {
891         if (seq.empty()) {
892                 // mul without factors: should not happen, but commutates
893                 return return_types::commutative;
894         }
895         
896         bool all_commutative = true;
897         epvector::const_iterator noncommutative_element; // point to first found nc element
898         
899         epvector::const_iterator i = seq.begin(), end = seq.end();
900         while (i != end) {
901                 unsigned rt = i->rest.return_type();
902                 if (rt == return_types::noncommutative_composite)
903                         return rt; // one ncc -> mul also ncc
904                 if ((rt == return_types::noncommutative) && (all_commutative)) {
905                         // first nc element found, remember position
906                         noncommutative_element = i;
907                         all_commutative = false;
908                 }
909                 if ((rt == return_types::noncommutative) && (!all_commutative)) {
910                         // another nc element found, compare type_infos
911                         if (noncommutative_element->rest.return_type_tinfo() != i->rest.return_type_tinfo()) {
912                                         // different types -> mul is ncc
913                                         return return_types::noncommutative_composite;
914                         }
915                 }
916                 ++i;
917         }
918         // all factors checked
919         return all_commutative ? return_types::commutative : return_types::noncommutative;
920 }
921
922 return_type_t mul::return_type_tinfo() const
923 {
924         if (seq.empty())
925                 return make_return_type_t<mul>(); // mul without factors: should not happen
926         
927         // return type_info of first noncommutative element
928         for (auto & it : seq)
929                 if (it.rest.return_type() == return_types::noncommutative)
930                         return it.rest.return_type_tinfo();
931
932         // no noncommutative element found, should not happen
933         return make_return_type_t<mul>();
934 }
935
936 ex mul::thisexpairseq(const epvector & v, const ex & oc, bool do_index_renaming) const
937 {
938         return dynallocate<mul>(v, oc, do_index_renaming);
939 }
940
941 ex mul::thisexpairseq(epvector && vp, const ex & oc, bool do_index_renaming) const
942 {
943         return dynallocate<mul>(std::move(vp), oc, do_index_renaming);
944 }
945
946 expair mul::split_ex_to_pair(const ex & e) const
947 {
948         if (is_exactly_a<power>(e)) {
949                 const power & powerref = ex_to<power>(e);
950                 if (is_exactly_a<numeric>(powerref.exponent))
951                         return expair(powerref.basis,powerref.exponent);
952         }
953         return expair(e,_ex1);
954 }
955
956 expair mul::combine_ex_with_coeff_to_pair(const ex & e,
957                                           const ex & c) const
958 {
959         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(c));
960
961         // First, try a common shortcut:
962         if (is_exactly_a<symbol>(e))
963                 return expair(e, c);
964
965         // trivial case: exponent 1
966         if (c.is_equal(_ex1))
967                 return split_ex_to_pair(e);
968
969         // to avoid duplication of power simplification rules,
970         // we create a temporary power object
971         // otherwise it would be hard to correctly evaluate
972         // expression like (4^(1/3))^(3/2)
973         return split_ex_to_pair(pow(e,c));
974 }
975
976 expair mul::combine_pair_with_coeff_to_pair(const expair & p,
977                                             const ex & c) const
978 {
979         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(p.coeff));
980         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(c));
981
982         // First, try a common shortcut:
983         if (is_exactly_a<symbol>(p.rest))
984                 return expair(p.rest, p.coeff * c);
985
986         // trivial case: exponent 1
987         if (c.is_equal(_ex1))
988                 return p;
989         if (p.coeff.is_equal(_ex1))
990                 return expair(p.rest, c);
991
992         // to avoid duplication of power simplification rules,
993         // we create a temporary power object
994         // otherwise it would be hard to correctly evaluate
995         // expression like (4^(1/3))^(3/2)
996         return split_ex_to_pair(pow(recombine_pair_to_ex(p),c));
997 }
998
999 ex mul::recombine_pair_to_ex(const expair & p) const
1000 {
1001         if (p.coeff.is_equal(_ex1))
1002                 return p.rest;
1003         else
1004                 return dynallocate<power>(p.rest, p.coeff);
1005 }
1006
1007 bool mul::expair_needs_further_processing(epp it)
1008 {
1009         if (is_exactly_a<mul>(it->rest) &&
1010             ex_to<numeric>(it->coeff).is_integer()) {
1011                 // combined pair is product with integer power -> expand it
1012                 *it = split_ex_to_pair(recombine_pair_to_ex(*it));
1013                 return true;
1014         }
1015         if (is_exactly_a<numeric>(it->rest)) {
1016                 if (it->coeff.is_equal(_ex1)) {
1017                         // pair has coeff 1 and must be moved to the end
1018                         return true;
1019                 }
1020                 expair ep = split_ex_to_pair(recombine_pair_to_ex(*it));
1021                 if (!ep.is_equal(*it)) {
1022                         // combined pair is a numeric power which can be simplified
1023                         *it = ep;
1024                         return true;
1025                 }
1026         }
1027         return false;
1028 }       
1029
1030 ex mul::default_overall_coeff() const
1031 {
1032         return _ex1;
1033 }
1034
1035 void mul::combine_overall_coeff(const ex & c)
1036 {
1037         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(overall_coeff));
1038         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(c));
1039         overall_coeff = ex_to<numeric>(overall_coeff).mul_dyn(ex_to<numeric>(c));
1040 }
1041
1042 void mul::combine_overall_coeff(const ex & c1, const ex & c2)
1043 {
1044         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(overall_coeff));
1045         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(c1));
1046         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(c2));
1047         overall_coeff = ex_to<numeric>(overall_coeff).mul_dyn(ex_to<numeric>(c1).power(ex_to<numeric>(c2)));
1048 }
1049
1050 bool mul::can_make_flat(const expair & p) const
1051 {
1052         GINAC_ASSERT(is_exactly_a<numeric>(p.coeff));
1053
1054         // (x*y)^c == x^c*y^c  if c ∈ ℤ
1055         return p.coeff.info(info_flags::integer);
1056 }
1057
1058 bool mul::can_be_further_expanded(const ex & e)
1059 {
1060         if (is_exactly_a<mul>(e)) {
1061                 for (auto & it : ex_to<mul>(e).seq) {
1062                         if (is_exactly_a<add>(it.rest) && it.coeff.info(info_flags::posint))
1063                                 return true;
1064                 }
1065         } else if (is_exactly_a<power>(e)) {
1066                 if (is_exactly_a<add>(e.op(0)) && e.op(1).info(info_flags::posint))
1067                         return true;
1068         }
1069         return false;
1070 }
1071
1072 ex mul::expand(unsigned options) const
1073 {
1074         // Check for trivial case: expanding the monomial (~ 30% of all calls)
1075         bool monomial_case = true;
1076         for (const auto & i : seq) {
1077                 if (!is_a<symbol>(i.rest) || !i.coeff.info(info_flags::integer)) {
1078                         monomial_case = false;
1079                         break;
1080                 }
1081         }
1082         if (monomial_case) {
1083                 setflag(status_flags::expanded);
1084                 return *this;
1085         }
1086
1087         // do not rename indices if the object has no indices at all
1088         if ((!(options & expand_options::expand_rename_idx)) && 
1089             this->info(info_flags::has_indices))
1090                 options |= expand_options::expand_rename_idx;
1091
1092         const bool skip_idx_rename = !(options & expand_options::expand_rename_idx);
1093
1094         // First, expand the children
1095         epvector expanded = expandchildren(options);
1096         const epvector & expanded_seq = (expanded.empty() ? seq : expanded);
1097
1098         // Now, look for all the factors that are sums and multiply each one out
1099         // with the next one that is found while collecting the factors which are
1100         // not sums
1101         ex last_expanded = _ex1;
1102
1103         epvector non_adds;
1104         non_adds.reserve(expanded_seq.size());
1105
1106         for (const auto & cit : expanded_seq) {
1107                 if (is_exactly_a<add>(cit.rest) &&
1108                         (cit.coeff.is_equal(_ex1))) {
1109                         if (is_exactly_a<add>(last_expanded)) {
1110
1111                                 // Expand a product of two sums, aggressive version.
1112                                 // Caring for the overall coefficients in separate loops can
1113                                 // sometimes give a performance gain of up to 15%!
1114
1115                                 const int sizedifference = ex_to<add>(last_expanded).seq.size()-ex_to<add>(cit.rest).seq.size();
1116                                 // add2 is for the inner loop and should be the bigger of the two sums
1117                                 // in the presence of asymptotically good sorting:
1118                                 const add& add1 = (sizedifference<0 ? ex_to<add>(last_expanded) : ex_to<add>(cit.rest));
1119                                 const add& add2 = (sizedifference<0 ? ex_to<add>(cit.rest) : ex_to<add>(last_expanded));
1120                                 epvector distrseq;
1121                                 distrseq.reserve(add1.seq.size()+add2.seq.size());
1122
1123                                 // Multiply add2 with the overall coefficient of add1 and append it to distrseq:
1124                                 if (!add1.overall_coeff.is_zero()) {
1125                                         if (add1.overall_coeff.is_equal(_ex1))
1126                                                 distrseq.insert(distrseq.end(), add2.seq.begin(), add2.seq.end());
1127                                         else
1128                                                 for (const auto & i : add2.seq)
1129                                                         distrseq.push_back(expair(i.rest, ex_to<numeric>(i.coeff).mul_dyn(ex_to<numeric>(add1.overall_coeff))));
1130                                 }
1131
1132                                 // Multiply add1 with the overall coefficient of add2 and append it to distrseq:
1133                                 if (!add2.overall_coeff.is_zero()) {
1134                                         if (add2.overall_coeff.is_equal(_ex1))
1135                                                 distrseq.insert(distrseq.end(), add1.seq.begin(), add1.seq.end());
1136                                         else
1137                                                 for (const auto & i : add1.seq)
1138                                                         distrseq.push_back(expair(i.rest, ex_to<numeric>(i.coeff).mul_dyn(ex_to<numeric>(add2.overall_coeff))));
1139                                 }
1140
1141                                 // Compute the new overall coefficient and put it together:
1142                                 ex tmp_accu = dynallocate<add>(distrseq, add1.overall_coeff*add2.overall_coeff);
1143
1144                                 exvector add1_dummy_indices, add2_dummy_indices, add_indices;
1145                                 lst dummy_subs;
1146
1147                                 if (!skip_idx_rename) {
1148                                         for (const auto & i : add1.seq) {
1149                                                 add_indices = get_all_dummy_indices_safely(i.rest);
1150                                                 add1_dummy_indices.insert(add1_dummy_indices.end(), add_indices.begin(), add_indices.end());
1151                                         }
1152                                         for (const auto & i : add2.seq) {
1153                                                 add_indices = get_all_dummy_indices_safely(i.rest);
1154                                                 add2_dummy_indices.insert(add2_dummy_indices.end(), add_indices.begin(), add_indices.end());
1155                                         }
1156
1157                                         sort(add1_dummy_indices.begin(), add1_dummy_indices.end(), ex_is_less());
1158                                         sort(add2_dummy_indices.begin(), add2_dummy_indices.end(), ex_is_less());
1159                                         dummy_subs = rename_dummy_indices_uniquely(add1_dummy_indices, add2_dummy_indices);
1160                                 }
1161
1162                                 // Multiply explicitly all non-numeric terms of add1 and add2:
1163                                 for (const auto & i2 : add2.seq) {
1164                                         // We really have to combine terms here in order to compactify
1165                                         // the result.  Otherwise it would become waayy tooo bigg.
1166                                         numeric oc(*_num0_p);
1167                                         epvector distrseq2;
1168                                         distrseq2.reserve(add1.seq.size());
1169                                         const ex i2_new = (skip_idx_rename || (dummy_subs.op(0).nops() == 0) ?
1170                                                         i2.rest :
1171                                                         i2.rest.subs(ex_to<lst>(dummy_subs.op(0)),
1172                                                                      ex_to<lst>(dummy_subs.op(1)), subs_options::no_pattern));
1173                                         for (const auto & i1 : add1.seq) {
1174                                                 // Don't push_back expairs which might have a rest that evaluates to a numeric,
1175                                                 // since that would violate an invariant of expairseq:
1176                                                 const ex rest = dynallocate<mul>(i1.rest, i2_new);
1177                                                 if (is_exactly_a<numeric>(rest)) {
1178                                                         oc += ex_to<numeric>(rest).mul(ex_to<numeric>(i1.coeff).mul(ex_to<numeric>(i2.coeff)));
1179                                                 } else {
1180                                                         distrseq2.push_back(expair(rest, ex_to<numeric>(i1.coeff).mul_dyn(ex_to<numeric>(i2.coeff))));
1181                                                 }
1182                                         }
1183                                         tmp_accu += dynallocate<add>(std::move(distrseq2), oc);
1184                                 }
1185                                 last_expanded = tmp_accu;
1186                         } else {
1187                                 if (!last_expanded.is_equal(_ex1))
1188                                         non_adds.push_back(split_ex_to_pair(last_expanded));
1189                                 last_expanded = cit.rest;
1190                         }
1191
1192                 } else {
1193                         non_adds.push_back(cit);
1194                 }
1195         }
1196
1197         // Now the only remaining thing to do is to multiply the factors which
1198         // were not sums into the "last_expanded" sum
1199         if (is_exactly_a<add>(last_expanded)) {
1200                 size_t n = last_expanded.nops();
1201                 exvector distrseq;
1202                 distrseq.reserve(n);
1203                 exvector va;
1204                 if (! skip_idx_rename) {
1205                         va = get_all_dummy_indices_safely(mul(non_adds));
1206                         sort(va.begin(), va.end(), ex_is_less());
1207                 }
1208
1209                 for (size_t i=0; i<n; ++i) {
1210                         epvector factors = non_adds;
1211                         if (skip_idx_rename)
1212                                 factors.push_back(split_ex_to_pair(last_expanded.op(i)));
1213                         else
1214                                 factors.push_back(split_ex_to_pair(rename_dummy_indices_uniquely(va, last_expanded.op(i))));
1215                         ex term = dynallocate<mul>(factors, overall_coeff);
1216                         if (can_be_further_expanded(term)) {
1217                                 distrseq.push_back(term.expand());
1218                         } else {
1219                                 if (options == 0)
1220                                         ex_to<basic>(term).setflag(status_flags::expanded);
1221                                 distrseq.push_back(term);
1222                         }
1223                 }
1224
1225                 return dynallocate<add>(distrseq).setflag(options == 0 ? status_flags::expanded : 0);
1226         }
1227
1228         non_adds.push_back(split_ex_to_pair(last_expanded));
1229         ex result = dynallocate<mul>(non_adds, overall_coeff);
1230         if (can_be_further_expanded(result)) {
1231                 return result.expand();
1232         } else {
1233                 if (options == 0)
1234                         ex_to<basic>(result).setflag(status_flags::expanded);
1235                 return result;
1236         }
1237 }
1238
1239   
1240 //////////
1241 // new virtual functions which can be overridden by derived classes
1242 //////////
1243
1244 // none
1245
1246 //////////
1247 // non-virtual functions in this class
1248 //////////
1249
1250
1251 /** Member-wise expand the expairs representing this sequence.  This must be
1252  *  overridden from expairseq::expandchildren() and done iteratively in order
1253  *  to allow for early cancellations and thus safe memory.
1254  *
1255  *  @see mul::expand()
1256  *  @return epvector containing expanded pairs, empty if no members
1257  *    had to be changed. */
1258 epvector mul::expandchildren(unsigned options) const
1259 {
1260         auto cit = seq.begin(), last = seq.end();
1261         while (cit!=last) {
1262                 const ex & factor = recombine_pair_to_ex(*cit);
1263                 const ex & expanded_factor = factor.expand(options);
1264                 if (!are_ex_trivially_equal(factor,expanded_factor)) {
1265                         
1266                         // something changed, copy seq, eval and return it
1267                         epvector s;
1268                         s.reserve(seq.size());
1269                         
1270                         // copy parts of seq which are known not to have changed
1271                         auto cit2 = seq.begin();
1272                         while (cit2!=cit) {
1273                                 s.push_back(*cit2);
1274                                 ++cit2;
1275                         }
1276
1277                         // copy first changed element
1278                         s.push_back(split_ex_to_pair(expanded_factor));
1279                         ++cit2;
1280
1281                         // copy rest
1282                         while (cit2!=last) {
1283                                 s.push_back(split_ex_to_pair(recombine_pair_to_ex(*cit2).expand(options)));
1284                                 ++cit2;
1285                         }
1286                         return s;
1287                 }
1288                 ++cit;
1289         }
1290
1291         return epvector(); // nothing has changed
1292 }
1293
1294 GINAC_BIND_UNARCHIVER(mul);
1295
1296 } // namespace GiNaC